Academic Writing A Handbook for International Students part 9
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2.2 Cause and Effect cross-reference 1. The relationship between two situations can be shown in a variety of ways: 3.20 Verbs – Passives
CAUSE: heavy EFFECT: rain ﬂooding
Heavy rain causes ﬂooding. Heavy rain leads to ﬂooding. Heavy rain results in ﬂooding. Heavy rain produces ﬂooding.
EFFECT: CAUSE: heavy ﬂooding rain
Flooding is caused by heavy rain. (note use of passive) Flooding is produced by heavy rain. Flooding results from heavy rain. cross-reference 2. It is also possible to use conjunctions which demonstrate 3.7 Conjunctions cause and effect.