Những yếu tố làm giảm hứng thú trong việc học nói tiếng Anh của sinh viên không chuyên năm thứ nhất tại trường Cao đẳng Hải Dương
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Luận văn tiếng Anh:Dimotivating factors for the first year non-English major students in learning to speak English at Hai Duong college = Những yếu tố làm giảm hứng thú trong việc học nói tiếng Anh của sinh viên không chuyên năm thứ nhất tại trường Cao đẳng Hải Dương.
M.A. Thesis English teachinhg methodology -- University of Languages and International Studies. Vietnam National University, Hanoi, 2012 Demotivating factors for the first year non-English major students in learning to speak English at Hai Duong College were investigated in this writing. To serve the purpose of the study, the two research methods, i.e. survey questionnaire and a structured interview, were employed by the researcher. The first survey questionnaire was completed by 120 first year non majors at Hai Duong College to explore the factors demotivating students’ learning to speak. In order to get more reliable results, an informal interview was conducted with 10 randomly chosen students. The second set of questions was sent to 8 teachers of the Department of Foreign Languages so as to identify their perceptions of students’ demotivators in speaking classes. The findings indicated five demotivating factors: (1) lack of intrinsic motivation; (2) lack of self-confidence; (3) learning environment; (4) teachers’ competence, behaviours and teaching methods; and (5) textbook and time for speaking skills. Based on the findings, some recommendations were put forward to Giúp students overcome demotivation PART A: INTRODUCTION 1 1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study 1 2. Aims of the study 2 3. Research questions 2 4. Methods of the study 2 5. Scope of the study 2 6. Design of the study 3 PART B: DEVELOPMENT 4 CHAPTER 1: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 4 1.1. Theoretical background of speaking 4 1.1.1. The nature of speaking 4 1.1.2. Definition of speaking 4 1.1.3. The role of speaking in foreign language teaching 5 1.1.4. Factors affecting the learning of speaking 6 1.2.Theoretical background of demotivation 8 1.2.1. Definition of demotivation 8 1.2.2. Factors affecting students’ demotivation 9 1.3. Previous studies on the topic 13 1.4. Summary of the chapter 15 CHAPTER 2: METHODOLOGY 16 2.1. An overview of current situation of teaching and learning 16 English at HDC 2.1.1. Hai Duong College 16 2.1.2. The students 16 2.1.3. The teachers 17 2.1.4. The teaching and learning conditions 17 2.1.5. The textbooks 17 2.2. Methodology 18 2.2.1. Subjects of the study 18 2.2.2. Data collection instruments 18 2.2.3. Data collection procedure 20 2.2.4. Data analysis procedure 20 2.3. Summary of the chapter 21 CHAPTER 3: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 22 3.1. Data analysis of students’ responses 22 3.1.1. Students’ attitudes towards speaking skills 22 3.1.2. Students’ ideas about demotivating factors in learning speaking English 24 3.1.3. Students’ interest and expectations 28 3.2. Data analysis of teachers’ responses 30 3.2.1. Teachers’ opinions on students’ attitudes towards speaking skills 30 3.2.2. Teachers’ ideas about students’ demotivation in learning to speak English 31 3.2.3. The frequency of teaching techniques and activities used by teachers in speaking lessons 32 3.2.4. Teachers’ opinions on what motivates students to learn to speak English 33 3.3. Major findings and discussion 33 3.3.1. Demotivating factors in learning English speaking skills for 33
the first year non-English majors at HDC 3.3.2. Solutions suggested by the teachers and the students to overcome demotivation in the learning of speaking skills 35 3.4. Summary of the chapter 36 PART C: CONCLUSION 37 1. Conclusions 37 2. Recommendations 38 3. Limitations of the study 40 4. Suggestions for further studies 40 REFERENCES 41 APPENDICES I
PART A: INTRODUCTION 1. Statement of the problem and rationale for the study Language skills have never been more important than today because in a global world where information travels fast, and people frequently interact across borders, the ability to communicate effectively is very necessary. It can not be denied that English is now considered to be a means of international communication and an important tool to connect countries all over the world. It is English that plays an essential role in the path of industrialization and modernization as well as in the process of integration and globalization of every country in the world. In Vietnam, English teaching and learning has become a great concern over the last decades. It has been a compulsory program in most of educational campuses such as institutions, universities, colleges and schools at different levels. There are more and more people desiring to know and master English because of different purposes: to pass examinations, to keep up with the latest development in science and technology in the world, or to cater their practical needs. Among the four skills known as listening, speaking, writing and listening, speaking skill plays an important part in language teaching in the context of Vietnam. For many learners, speaking skill is the most important of the four skills in a second language in general and in English in particular. However, it is the fact that most of students at Hai Duong College (HDC) seem to consider speaking skill to be the most challenging. From observations and teaching experiences, the author realizes that students pay little attention to communicative skills such as listening and speaking. They seem to have lost interest in learning English and they are not active in participating in speaking activities. They feel nervous in speaking class and become demotivated in learning speaking. These lead to the underachievement and have a negative effect on students in learning English as a foreign language. With the desire to identify the factors affecting students’ demotivation and find out some solutions for this problem, I decided to choose the topic “Demotivating
Factors for the First Year non-English Major Students in Learning to Speak English at Hai Duong College” as the title of my minor thesis. 2. Aims of the study The major purposes of this study are: - To identify the demotivating factors affecting the first year non-English majors learning to speak English. - To figure out some suggested solutions to eliminate the demotivation and Giúp to improve students’ speaking skills. 3. Research questions The study is implemented to find out the answers for the following questions: 1. What are the demotivating factors affecting the first year non-English major students in learning to speak English at HDC? 2. What solutions do the teachers and the students suggest to overcome the students’ demotivation in learning speaking skills? 4. Methods of the study To achieve the aims of the study, both quantitative and qualitative methods are employed. The data was collected by means of questionnaires and interview. Two sets of survey questionnaires, one for students and the other for teachers, were mainly used to get information and evidence for the study. To get more reliable data, an interview was conducted. All the comments, remarks, recommendations and conclusions provided in the thesis were based on the analysis of the data. 5. Scope of the study This study is limited to the student’s demotivation in learning to speak English at HDC. Therefore, the investigation of the issue on other skills will not be included in the study. Furthermore, it should be taken into consideration that the subjects of the study are the first year non-English majors who are being taught speaking skill under the communicative approach.
6. Design of the study This minor thesis is divided into three main parts: Introduction, Development, and Conclusions. Part A, Introduction, presents the rationale, the aims, the research questions, the methods, the scope as well as the design of the study. Part B, Development, consists of three chapters: Chapter one, Literature review, revises the relevant theories as the base for carrying out the research. In addition, related studies are also mentioned in this chapter. Chapter two, Methodology, provides the methodology underlying the research which includes the setting of the study, research questions, participants, data collection instruments, data collection procedure as well as data analysis procedure. Chapter three, Data analysis and discussion, shows a detailed presentation of data analysis to answer the research questions. The discussion of the findings is also included in this chapter. Part C, Conclusions, addresses the key issues in the study, comes up with some recommendations to cope with the problem. Furthermore, this part also points out some shortcomings of the study as well as provides some suggestions for further studies. PART B: DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 1: LITERATURE REVIEW This chapter reviews relevant theories and studies that can be the base for conducting the research. The background knowledge of speaking and demotivation as well as previous studies concerning the topic of the study will be presented. 1.1. Theoretical background of speaking 1.1.1. The nature of speaking Of the four macro inter-related language skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing, speaking seems intuitively the most important. According to Ur (1996), people who know a language are referred to as speakers of that language, as if speaking included all other types of skills, and many, if not most foreign language learners are primarily interested in learning to speak. Speaking skill requires the masters speak with confidence to carry out a lot of their most basic transactions. Byrne (1986) proved that the nature of oral communication is a two-way process between the speaker and the listener involving the productive skill of speaking and the receptive skill of understanding. When the speaker starts a message, the listener decodes, and responds to the message in turns. In spite of not being a set curriculum in most schools, speaking skill has been illustrated to be a fundamental skill for a child to succeed in life. 1.1.2. Definition of speaking According to Brown (1994), speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing, receiving and processing information. It is “often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving” but it is not completely unpredictable. Its form and meaning are dependent on the context in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective experiences, the physical environment, and the purpose for speaking. In addition, Chaney and Burk (1998:13) defined speaking as "the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non-verbal symbols, in a variety of contexts". Bailey (2005:2) also argued that “speaking is the productive, oral skill. It consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.” Mackey (1995, cited in Bygate, (1987:5)), affirmed speaking as “oral expression involves not only the use of right sounds in the patterns of rhythm and intonation, but also the choice of words and inflections in the right order to convey the right meaning.” Brown and Yule (1983) pointed out a useful distinction between two basic language functions which are transactional function and interactional function. The transactional function is concerned with the transfer of information whereas the interactional function is to maintain the social relationships. According to Nunan (1992), there is a difference between the two types of conversations called dialogue and monologue. The first type refers to the ability to give and interrupt oral presentation while the second type refers to the interaction with one or more other speakers for transactional and interactional purposes. 1.1.3. The role of speaking in foreign language teaching In the view of language teaching, language has been divided into four macro skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing based on the purpose of analysis and instruction. It is undeniable that speaking skill plays the most important part in foreign language teaching because it is fundamental to human communication (Ur, 1996). Knowing the language means being able to speak the language. Furthermore, it is the vehicle to establish and maintain social relationships as well as to achieve professional advancement. In the international relationship, English speaking ability is obviously crucial to be able to participate in the wider world of work. The speaking skill is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the language. For the reasons